22 August, 2021

Constipation in Children

Constipation in children is a common problem which needs support from parents and as well as paediatrician’s advice.

What is constipation?

Infrequent bowel movement with passage of hard stools is known as constipation.

What are the common causes of constipation in a child?

Many factors contribute to constipation in children such as

  • Changes in diet– not enough fibre, fruits and vegetables in diet
  • Improper toilet training– if you began toilet training too soon, your child may start holding the stool. Usually toilet training starts from 18months to 24months of age.
  • Stress and hot weather
  • Withholding of stool when they are uncomfortable using public toilets
  • Cow’s milk allergy- Allergy to cow’s milk or consumption of too much dairy products.
  • Some medical conditions like anatomic malformations, hypothyroidism, neurodevelopment impairment and digestive system problems. 

What are the symptoms and signs of constipation?

  • Less than 3 bowel movements per week
  • Passing hard and dry stool 
  • Straining and pain while passing stool
  • Decreased appetite and intermittent stomach pain
  • Soiling of your child’s underwear
  • Sometimes blood stains along with hard stool may be seen
  • Child crossing his or her legs, clenching buttocks while attempting to pass stool

What are the risk factors for childhood constipation?

  • Sedentary life style and less outdoor activity
  • Poor dietary habits with not enough fibre
  • Not drinking adequate amount of water
  • Child having neurological disorders

What complications can occur due to chronic constipation?

Usually constipation will not cause serious complications. However, if it becomes a chronic problem then the following complications can occur:

  • Recurrent urinary tract infections
  • Painful breaks in the skin around the anus (known as anal fissures)
  • Part of rectum comes out of anus (Rectal Prolapse)
  • Withholding of stool due to pain can lead to leakage of stool and soiling of underwear (Encopresis)

How to prevent constipation in children?

  • Promote physical activity
  • Encourage your child to drink more fluids and to take adequate fibre in diet.
  • Maintain a daily toilet routine
  • Be supportive and reward for good bowel habits
  • Don’t skip medications for any medical condition that can lead to constipation (Eg:Hypothyroidism)

Which foods are rich in fibre?

  • Green leafy vegetables – Spinach, Lettuce, Cabbage, Broccoli etc
  • Fresh Fruits – Green banana, Papaya, Apple, Orange, Grapes, Kiwi, Pears, Strawberries  & Guava etc
  • Wheat, Oats, Chickpeas, Corn, kidney beans and nuts like almonds etc.

What foods need to be avoided in diet?

  • Cookies, Chocolates, Chips, Cakes, Soft drinks, Excessive dairy products, fried foods, Red meat, too much refined sugar etc.

When do you need to see your Paediatrician?

Take your child to paediatrician when 

  • Constipation lasts longer than 2weeks
  • Burning sensation/ crying while passing urine
  • Crying or refuses to squat due to pain around the anus.
  • If its associated with decreased appetite
  • Presence of blood in stool
  • Abdomen distension 
  • Part of large intestine comes out of anal opening (rectal Prolapse)

Bristol stool chart helps you in identification of type of stool your child is passing


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12 January, 2024

Benefits of Breastfeeding Beyond 6 Months

Breastfeeding is a remarkable journey that goes beyond the initial months of a baby's life. While many mothers may choose to introduce complementary foods around six months, continuing to breastfeed beyond this point offers numerous benefits for both the baby and the mother. In this comprehensive exploration, we will delve into the advantages and considerations of breastfeeding beyond six months, addressing the nutritional, emotional, and developmental aspects of this unique and valuable relationship.The World Health Organization's Recommendations:Before delving into the benefits, it's essential to understand the recommendations provided by the World Health Organization (WHO). This section will outline the WHO guidelines, which recommend exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life and continued breastfeeding alongside appropriate complementary foods for up to two years or beyond.Nutritional Benefits for the Baby:Breast milk is a dynamic and ever-changing source of nutrition. Beyond six months, it continues to provide essential nutrients crucial for the baby's growth and development. This part of the exploration will discuss the nutritional benefits of breast milk, including the ongoing supply of antibodies, vitamins, minerals, and customized nutrients that adapt to the baby's changing needs.Continued Immune System Support:
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12 January, 2024

Allergies and Intolerances in Babies

As babies embark on their journey of solid food introduction after 6 months, parents often encounter the complexities of allergies and intolerances when new foods are introduced with the hope of acceptance of the fresh food. The child may accept it, throw it out, or spit it if they do not like it. They may also show some discomfort, which could be signs that make it difficult for the mother to understand the acceptance and taste of it. Mothers understand the signs of acceptance and discomfort, and understanding the difference between the two makes it easy for the mother to need to see a doctor because these conditions are different for the well-being of the infant.What are Allergies and Intolerances:We need to start observing the between allergies and intolerances is essential for accurate recognition and management for the child of various age groups. Many parents find it difficult to know the difference between the two as they look quite similar. Immune-mediated food allergies and non-immune-mediated intolerances are examples of adverse food reactions. Nevertheless, there is frequently confusion regarding this distinction and the participation of several pathogenetic pathways. Additionally, there is a mismatch in the real versus perceived prevalence of immune-mediated food allergies as well as extremely common
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24 June, 2019

Important Vaccines in the first few years of baby’s life

The first few years are very essential for your baby’s general health and well-being. Your newborn may be at risk from deadly diseases such as polio, chickenpox, etc. Infectious viral diseases such as polio are caused by a virus that attacks a child’s nervous system and needs immunization or vaccination to prevent the same. For instance, immunization for polio are given in the form of Pulse Polio drops. When it comes to your baby’s health, you want to be absolutely sure and safe. Therefore, every parent wants to know more about the vaccinations to be administered to your child from the time of birth. Due to this very reason, pediatricians give out a vaccination schedule to the parents. This vaccination schedule has a list of all the mandatory and optional vaccines that your baby needs in his/her growing years to protect them from several diseases. Here is a quick roundup of the most important vaccines that your child may need in the first few years. Immunization Schedule for Newborn Baby Vaccination at Birth: There are three vaccines which are given as soon as the baby is born. These are: BCG: The Bacillus Calmette-Guérin is a vaccine given to prevent tuberculosis. It is a mandatory vaccine as there is a global attempt by health agencies to eradicated TB completely, especially in
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