21 March, 2021

Understanding Menstrual Disorder

Menstrual disorders includes disruptive physical and/or emotional symptoms just before and during menstruation, including heavy bleeding, missed periods and unmanageable mood swings.


There are many types of menstrual disorders, including:

  • Abnormal uterine bleeding. Excessive or prolonged menstrual bleeding
  • Amenorrhea. The absence of menstrual bleeding
  • Oligomenorrhea. Light or infrequent menstruation
  • Fibroids. Noncancerous uterine tumors
  • Premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Physical and emotional discomfort prior to menstruation
  • Premenstrual dysphonic disorder (PMDD). Severe physical and emotional discomfort prior to menstruation


Menstrual disorders can be caused by multiple factors, including:

  • Uterine fibroids
  • Hormonal imbalances-Thyroid problems
  • Clotting disorders-Von Willebrand’s disease, ITP
  • Cancer-Leukemia,Pre-cancerous Lesions of uterus
  • Sexually transmitted infections (STIs)
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome- cysts on the ovaries
  • Genetics
  • Medications- Anticoagulants


Symptoms may include:

  • Abnormal menstrual bleeding-which may include heavy menstrual bleeding, no menstrual bleeding (amenorrhea) or bleeding between periods (irregular menstrual bleeding)

Bleeding is considered heavy if it starts to interferes with normal activities

  • Dysmenorrhea-Pain or cramping
  • Depression
  • Headaches
  • Emotional distress
  • Bloating or fullness in the abdomen


It starts with a detailed medical history and physical exam, including pelvic exam and Pap smear. You should keep a diary of your menstrual cycles, including dates, amount of flow, pain and any other symptoms.

Additional testing may include:

  • Blood tests
  • Hormonal tests
  • Ultrasound. To detect conditions those are causing menstrual disorders.
  • Hysterosonography. An ultrasound using sterile saline for better imaging of uterine cavity.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). For detailed pictures of the uterus and surrounding organs.
  • Hysteroscopy. An office procedure that uses a small hysteroscope inserted through the vagina and cervix to examine the uterus for fibroids, polyps, or other areas of concerns.
  • Laparoscopy. Looks for abnormalities of the reproductive organs using a laparoscope inserted through a small incision in the abdomen.
  • Endometrial biopsy is an office procedure in which a small sample of the lining of the uterus is removed to examine for abnormal cells.
  • Dilation and Curettage (D&C). The inner lining of the uterus and cervix is scraped to take tissue samples or relieve heavy bleeding.


Treatment for menstrual disorders depends on multiple factors like underlying cause, the woman’s desire to have children, and other factors. Treatment options ranges from lifestyle changes to medical options to surgery, including:

Dietary changes.Reduce salt, caffeine, sugar, and alcohol intake before a woman’s period to reduce cramping and other symptoms.

Medical treatment. Medication therapy is often successful as first option. The benefits last only till the time medication is taken.

Low-dose birth control pills, progestins and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) helps control heavy or irregular bleeding caused by hormonal imbalances. If your periods have stopped then oral contraceptives and contraceptive patches are highly effective in restoring regular bleeding, although they will not correct the reason you stopped bleeding. These can also help to reduce menstrual flow, improve and control menstrual patterns and relieve pelvic pain during menstruation.

These are considered for PMS treatment if your symptoms are mostly physical, but may not be effective if your primary symptom is mood changes. A newer brand of oral contraceptive containing a form of progesterone called drospirenone and marketed under the names YAZ, Yasmin, Ocella, Gianvi and Zarah, may reduce some mood-related symptoms such as anxiety, irritability, tearfulness and tension. And Yaz is FDA-approved for the treatment of PMDD.

Progestins are also used to manage heavy bleeding, particularly that resulting from a lack of ovulation. Although they are less effective compared to estrogen, they are good for long-term management. 

The levonorgestrel intrauterine system (Mirena) is used to treat heavy menstrual bleeding in women who use intrauterine contraception as their method of birth control prevention. 

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are available over the counter and with a prescription and can help reduce menstrual bleeding and cramping. These medications include ibuprofen and naproxen. Mefenamic acid (Ponstel) is a prescription-only NSAID. Common side effects are stomach upset, headaches, dizziness and drowsiness.

Tranexamic acid, has been used successfully to decrease heavy menstrual bleeding.These tablets are only taken on the days you expect to have heavy bleeding.

Surgical treatment. Surgery can be performed:

  • Hysteroscopy, a minimally invasive approach to examine and treat areas of concern inside the uterus
  • Laparoscopy, using a scope inserted in small incisions in the abdomen
  • Through traditional abdominal techniques
  • Procedures include endometrial ablation, which destroys the inner lining of the uterus to stop periods, and hysterectomy, the surgical removal of the uterus.
  • Myomectomy- if cause of heavy bleeding is uterine fibroids


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30 January, 2018

Ways in which Dads-to-be can help out in Delivery Room

In the delivery room, it is up to the mother to do all the pushing. However, dad can play a major role in the birthing process too. Labor can be overwhelming for first-time mothers. If your partner is able to have a normal, vaginal delivery, you can ask the doctor about being present in the delivery room during birthing process. As a dad, your support and encouragement can go a long way in comforting the mother. Here are some ways in which dads-to-be can help out in the delivery room: Provide Distractions Labor has the tendency to be long and tedious. You may be spending hours doing nothing but waiting for your baby to arrive. You can take your wife’s mind off her discomfort by keeping her distracted. Music, conversations or even card games are a great way to keep her mind occupied. Speak out on her Behalf To do this, it is important you discuss her birth plan in advance. Understand how she feels about episiotomies or what her expectations of the doctor are. Don’t wait until your partner begins having her contractions to find out what kind of assistance she needs from you. Knowing her birth plan in advance makes it easier for you to articulate her needs when she is in pain,
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02 February, 2018

Reasons for periods to be late if Pregnancy test is Negative

More often than not, a missed period is an indicator of a woman’s pregnancy. However, that isn’t always correct. A woman may have a delayed or missed period but still, have a negative pregnancy test. There may be several reasons for that happening. Here are some of them: Low Hormone Levels During early pregnancy, the levels of the pregnancy hormone human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) aren’t high enough for a home pregnancy test to detect. So if you’re trying to get pregnant, your negative test result on a home kit may not be correct and you might be pregnant. A woman’s cycle may keep varying and if she conceives later in the cycle, the hormone levels may be low at the time of her missed period. To rule out any complications, be sure to talk to your doctor if you miss your periods and continue to do so. Ectopic Pregnancy Although rare, an ectopic pregnancy can show up as negative on a home pregnancy test. Only about 3 percent or fewer cases of negative tests point towards an ectopic pregnancy. If you have these symptoms along with a negative result, see your doctor immediately: Severe pain in lower abdomen or on one side Dizziness or lightheadedness Bleeding or spotting Nausea and vomiting
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10 February, 2018

5 Home remedies for Gas during Pregnancy

Experiencing gas is common during pregnancy. The female body goes through several changes during pregnancy and gas is a result of certain normal body functions. The hormone progesterone, which is responsible for supporting your pregnancy, is also the reason behind that gassy feeling. It relaxes the muscles in your intestine and slows down the digestion process. This allows gas build up and causes bloating, burping, and flatulence. Certain foods and even your prenatal vitamins can cause you to feel gassy. The good news is, there are several things you can try at home to ease gas during pregnancy. Here are some of them: Drink Lots of Fluids Make sure you drink a lot of water every day to avoid gas during pregnancy. Aim for 10-12 glasses per day. You can also include other fluids such as juices. However, if you’re suffering from irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), make sure the juice you drink is low in gas and bloating-promoting sugars. Move Around In order to find relief from gas during pregnancy, make physical activity and exercise a part of your daily routine. Walk or exercise every day for at least 30 minutes. Not only does it help keep you physically and emotionally fit, it can also help prevent constipation and speed up digestion. Remember to talk
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