21 March, 2021

Understanding Menstrual Disorder

Menstrual disorders includes disruptive physical and/or emotional symptoms just before and during menstruation, including heavy bleeding, missed periods and unmanageable mood swings.


There are many types of menstrual disorders, including:

  • Abnormal uterine bleeding. Excessive or prolonged menstrual bleeding
  • Amenorrhea. The absence of menstrual bleeding
  • Oligomenorrhea. Light or infrequent menstruation
  • Fibroids. Noncancerous uterine tumors
  • Premenstrual syndrome (PMS). Physical and emotional discomfort prior to menstruation
  • Premenstrual dysphonic disorder (PMDD). Severe physical and emotional discomfort prior to menstruation


Menstrual disorders can be caused by multiple factors, including:

  • Uterine fibroids
  • Hormonal imbalances-Thyroid problems
  • Clotting disorders-Von Willebrand’s disease, ITP
  • Cancer-Leukemia,Pre-cancerous Lesions of uterus
  • Sexually transmitted infections (STIs)
  • Polycystic ovary syndrome- cysts on the ovaries
  • Genetics
  • Medications- Anticoagulants


Symptoms may include:

  • Abnormal menstrual bleeding-which may include heavy menstrual bleeding, no menstrual bleeding (amenorrhea) or bleeding between periods (irregular menstrual bleeding)

Bleeding is considered heavy if it starts to interferes with normal activities

  • Dysmenorrhea-Pain or cramping
  • Depression
  • Headaches
  • Emotional distress
  • Bloating or fullness in the abdomen


It starts with a detailed medical history and physical exam, including pelvic exam and Pap smear. You should keep a diary of your menstrual cycles, including dates, amount of flow, pain and any other symptoms.

Additional testing may include:

  • Blood tests
  • Hormonal tests
  • Ultrasound. To detect conditions those are causing menstrual disorders.
  • Hysterosonography. An ultrasound using sterile saline for better imaging of uterine cavity.
  • Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). For detailed pictures of the uterus and surrounding organs.
  • Hysteroscopy. An office procedure that uses a small hysteroscope inserted through the vagina and cervix to examine the uterus for fibroids, polyps, or other areas of concerns.
  • Laparoscopy. Looks for abnormalities of the reproductive organs using a laparoscope inserted through a small incision in the abdomen.
  • Endometrial biopsy is an office procedure in which a small sample of the lining of the uterus is removed to examine for abnormal cells.
  • Dilation and Curettage (D&C). The inner lining of the uterus and cervix is scraped to take tissue samples or relieve heavy bleeding.


Treatment for menstrual disorders depends on multiple factors like underlying cause, the woman’s desire to have children, and other factors. Treatment options ranges from lifestyle changes to medical options to surgery, including:

Dietary changes.Reduce salt, caffeine, sugar, and alcohol intake before a woman’s period to reduce cramping and other symptoms.

Medical treatment. Medication therapy is often successful as first option. The benefits last only till the time medication is taken.

Low-dose birth control pills, progestins and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) helps control heavy or irregular bleeding caused by hormonal imbalances. If your periods have stopped then oral contraceptives and contraceptive patches are highly effective in restoring regular bleeding, although they will not correct the reason you stopped bleeding. These can also help to reduce menstrual flow, improve and control menstrual patterns and relieve pelvic pain during menstruation.

These are considered for PMS treatment if your symptoms are mostly physical, but may not be effective if your primary symptom is mood changes. A newer brand of oral contraceptive containing a form of progesterone called drospirenone and marketed under the names YAZ, Yasmin, Ocella, Gianvi and Zarah, may reduce some mood-related symptoms such as anxiety, irritability, tearfulness and tension. And Yaz is FDA-approved for the treatment of PMDD.

Progestins are also used to manage heavy bleeding, particularly that resulting from a lack of ovulation. Although they are less effective compared to estrogen, they are good for long-term management. 

The levonorgestrel intrauterine system (Mirena) is used to treat heavy menstrual bleeding in women who use intrauterine contraception as their method of birth control prevention. 

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are available over the counter and with a prescription and can help reduce menstrual bleeding and cramping. These medications include ibuprofen and naproxen. Mefenamic acid (Ponstel) is a prescription-only NSAID. Common side effects are stomach upset, headaches, dizziness and drowsiness.

Tranexamic acid, has been used successfully to decrease heavy menstrual bleeding.These tablets are only taken on the days you expect to have heavy bleeding.

Surgical treatment. Surgery can be performed:

  • Hysteroscopy, a minimally invasive approach to examine and treat areas of concern inside the uterus
  • Laparoscopy, using a scope inserted in small incisions in the abdomen
  • Through traditional abdominal techniques
  • Procedures include endometrial ablation, which destroys the inner lining of the uterus to stop periods, and hysterectomy, the surgical removal of the uterus.
  • Myomectomy- if cause of heavy bleeding is uterine fibroids


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20 November, 2021

5 easy ways to reduce stress during pregnancy

No matter how happy you are about your pregnancy, stress during the pregnancy phase is unavoidable. Most of the time, it is because of the hormones that play around. But there are a lot of other factors that account to stress. Managing stress during pregnancy is an efficient way to enjoy your pregnancy period.  Knowing the changes and accepting them happening to your body will help you best during this phase. However, know more efficient ways to reduce stress during pregnancy.  Here are the 5 easy ways to reduce stress during pregnancy.  Eat well and sleep well must be a routine  Nothing can replace the best benefits of proper food and sound sleep. Ensure that you follow a balanced diet with all the necessary supplements that your body needs and take enough rest. A night of proper sleep will make your day brighter and keep you comparatively in a cheerful mood. Rest when you are tired. Do not overdo during pregnancy. A perfect routine for food and sleep will ease up your hormones.  Surround yourself with positive energy. Talk to your friends and family. Pregnancy can put you through a lot of thoughts. It will make you think about the least possible negativity. Well, these are the instincts of the mother to safeguard her child. So
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10 November, 2023

5 best ways to avoid premature labour

The average length of a human gestation is 280 days or 40 weeks. The gestation period is usually counted from the first day of woman’s last menstrual period. It’s good and healthier for babies not to be born before they’re due. If the labour starts before 37 weeks of pregnancy, then it is usually called as premature labour. In this case, the baby is not fully grown and is not entirely ready to come into the outside world.In premature labour, the mother is unable to carry her baby for the full 9-month term. There are a number of reasons behind the preterm labour, including traumas, accidents and unpredictable diseases. Although the reasons are not clear, here are the common and best advisable ways to avoid premature labour.Learn what you can do to prevent early labour!  See your health care provider early and regularly during your pregnancy. Prenatal care is designed over the years to minimise the risk and complications of pregnancy. A good health care provider can ensure and plan your pregnancy. Attend all prenatal appointments with your doctor and have all the screening tests to check your health and your baby’s health. Understand the common problems of the pregnancy and check the root causes in case of complications. Understanding the root causes will help you and
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25 October, 2021

Pelvic Pain

Pelvic Pain Pelvic pain is pain in the lower part of the abdomen and pelvis. It can stem from multiple causes. Pelvic pain arises from the conditions associated with reproductive, urinary or digestive systems, or from muscles and ligaments in the pelvis. Pelvic pain can be due to irritation of nerves in the pelvis. Chronic pelvic pain is constant or intermittent pelvic pain for six months or more. Pelvic pain may spread to lower back, buttocks or thighs. Pelvic pain can also be situational, such as while using the bathroom or have sex. Causes More than one condition can lead to Pelvic pain. Common causes of acute pelvic pain Ovarian cyst– it is fluid-filled bubble arising from an ovary and causes pelvic pain when it ruptures or becomes twisted Acute pelvic inflammatory disease– a bacterial infection of the reproductive organs, which often follows a chlamydia or gonorrhoea infection and needs immediate treatment with Antibiotics. Ectopic Pregnancy (or other pregnancy-related conditions) Miscarriage or intrauterine fetal death Menstrual cramps (dysmenorrhea) Mittelschmerz (ovulation pain) Appendicitis â€“ a painful swelling of the appendix which usually causes pain on the lower right-hand side of your abdomen Peritonitis– inflammation of the peritoneum; it causes sudden abdominal pain that gradually becomes more severe and requires emergency treatment Urinary tract infection – it will cause pain or a burning sensation while urination Kidney stones Constipation or
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