14 July, 2021

Foreign body aspiration in children

Coughing and choking is a common event causing respiratory complications in children under the age of 3-4 years. Children under the age of 2 years are particularly vulnerable to aspiration of foreign bodies. Children with neurodevelopmental abnormalities are also at risk.

This predisposition is due to multiple reasons. Young infants have varying developmental abilities and try to explore surroundings by mouth. Young children have poor ability to grind and swallow food particles. They have small airways which are more prone for obstruction. Also, the force of cough in young children is less effective in dislodging foreign bodies from airways compared to older children/adults.

The most commonly ingested foreign bodies include nuts, seeds and  vegetables. Aspirated inorganic foreign bodies include coins, pins, Jewellery and toys.


The symptoms of foreign body aspiration depend on the age of the child,  characteristics of the foreign body and duration.

The foreign body can lodge and obstruct upper airways (larynx/trachea- less common) or may pass on to lower airways (bronchi-more common). The symptoms can range from asymptomatic state to severe breathing difficulty. These include: 

  • Initial coughing , choking and gagging
  • Sudden onset difficulty in breathing following such event 
  • Noisy breathing (stridor)
  • Inability to speak or cough
  • If delayed presentation 
  • Noisy breathing
  • Breathing difficulty
  • Recurrent pneumonia
  • Blood in sputum


  • History is the most important clue in establishing diagnosis
  • A negative history may be misleading; Unwitnessed events do happen
  • Always enquire about the presence of small objects in the surroundings of the child and about feeding habits
  • Physical examination may reveal hyperinflation of chest or loss of lung volume, decreased breath sounds on involved side and wheezing
  • Chest radiographs may help in diagnosis
  • Radio-opaque foreign bodies are visible; However, they are less common
  • Radiolucent foreign bodies are not visible
  • Findings suggestive of foreign body aspiration include
  • Hyperlucency of involved lung due to partial obstruction of airway
  • Collapse of the lung due to complete obstruction of airway
  • Mediastinal shift
  • Expiratory films may be helpful in revealing trapped air
  • CT scan may be considered in occasional cases with diagnostic dilemma or  prolonged history
  • In cases where history and examination is not conclusive, flexible bronchoscopy may help in establishing the diagnosis.


  • Recurrent or persistent pneumonia
  • Chronic cough
  • Hemoptysis
  • Bronchiectasis (Abnormal dilatation of airways)
  • Lung fibrosis


  • In children with near total obstruction from upper airway, prompt removal by five back blows and chest thrusts in young infants or Heimlich maneuver in older children will be lifesaving
  • Prompt rigid bronchoscopy and removal of the foreign body is recommended 
  • Flexible bronchoscopic removal also can be done by experienced personnel
  • Complications of bronchoscopic removal of foreign body include pneumothorax, bronchospasm, bleeding, desaturation and airway edema; These are rare less common


  • Educating parents and caregivers regarding prevention strategies to prevent such events in young children 
  • Avoid giving foods at high risk of choking to young children
  • Training children to chew slowly, eat while seated and to avoid running or playing during eating
  • Age appropriate toys should be used and small toys or toys that are easily  disassembled should be avoided 


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02 February, 2022

The Ultimate Guide to Taking Care of Toddlers in the Winter

With the cold weather already here, you may be thinking about whether it’s safe for your toddler to play outside or not. However, no matter if the temperatures outside are decreasing, toddlers during the winter require physical activities because they are great stress relievers for them when they are cooped up inside their house for so many hours. Thus, it is safe for a toddler to play outside during the cold weather. The American Council of Exercise even recommends that the children should receive approximately 60 minutes of physical activity each day. So you may allow your toddler for outdoor play in different intervals by providing them breaks after 10 to 20 minutes.  Here are several other tips that will facilitate outdoor play for your toddlers while keeping them safe. Dressing Them Properly During Cold Weather Toddlers during the winter should be sent outside to play only after dressing them in layers.  The layered dressing will help to keep the body warm of your toddler with scarves, boots, hats, earmuffs, socks or mittens. Additionally, the layers will not only protect your child while they’re playing outside but will also help to retain their body heat through the air pockets present in the different clothes. Though your child may become sweaty through outdoor play, you can always take off one layer. It is even recommended to dress your child in an extra layer as compared to an average adult.
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29 January, 2022

Common Diseases and Issues: Caring For a Baby And How To Prevent Them.

Caring for a baby is very crucial because during the initial first year the baby’s immune system is quite weak. Due to this, there are amplified chances for him or her to develop several common diseases in babies or sickness in infant. But with the right care, you can treat common diseases in babies easily. However, new parents and caregivers may have several questions related to their infants’ healthcare. So this guide will help you to know how to care for your baby and prevent the common diseases in babies and sickness in infant. Now let’s have a look at the common diseases in babies worth one year or less and how to care for them, or how to prevent them earlier only.  Bowel movements Keeping track of the bowel movement of your infant is crucial because this can help you to know if your infant is likely to develop any disease. So the different factors you need to consider regarding the bowel movement of your baby are as follows. Consistency. Initially, the consistency of your kid’s stool will range from loose, runny or soft. However, infant or formula-fed may have stools with a tan yellow shade and firmer as compared to the infants who are breastfed. All you need to consider while checking the consistency of your infants’ stool is that it should not be hard or very
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24 January, 2022

Baby’s First Year – Feeding Schedule and Nutrition Tips

You’ve happily clicked a snap of your little munchkin eating messily! That’s great, but now are you worried about how to provide the best nutrition to your baby in the first year? Fret not, here’s a guide on the feeding schedule for baby in the first year. Keeping in mind the fact that different infants require a different amount of nutrition, the nutrition you provide to your infant depends on his or her age, appetite, and body weight. So let’s have a glance at the healthy food for baby according to their age in the first year of birth. Newborns. As you must know, infants should receive the nutrition and calories only through breast milk or formula.  So let’s know the feeding schedule for baby with both these items. Breast milk According to the American Academy of Paediatrics, an infant should drink one to two ounces of breast milk per feeding. However, once your baby is at least two weeks old, the amount of this quantity will amplify to two to three ounces.  Generally, you need to feed breast milk to your newborn every two to three hours ass it proves to be a healthy food for baby. Formula. If you’re opting to include a formula in the feeding
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