19 February, 2021

Cervical Dysplasia

Cervical dysplasia is a precancerous condition during which abnormal cell growth occurs on the surface lining of the cervix or endocervical canal. It has strong association with sexually transmitted human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, cervical dysplasia is most common in women under age 30 but can develop at any age.

Often it doesn’t cause any symptoms, and is mostly discovered by a routine Pap test. So women who go undiagnosed or who don’t receive appropriate care are at higher risk of developing cervical cancer.

Causes of Cervical Dysplasia

HPV infection is common in women and men, and mostly affects sexually active women under age 20.

In most cases, the our immune system eliminates HPV and clears the infection. But in some women, the infection will persist and lead to cervical dysplasia. Of the more than 100 different strains of HPV, more than 35% of them can be sexually transmitted, and two particular types — HPV 16 and HPV 18 — are strongly associated with cervical cancer.

HPV is usually passed during sexual contact such as vaginal intercourse, anal intercourse, or oral sex. But it can also be transmitted by any skin-to-skin contact with an infected person.

As smoking suppresses immune system, smokers are twice as likely as nonsmokers to develop severe cervical dysplasia.

Risk Factors

  • Early initiation of sexual activity
  • Having multiple sex partners
  • Being with a partner who has multiple sex partners
  • Having sex with an uncircumcised man


As pelvic examination is usually normal in women with cervical dysplasia, a Pap test is necessary to diagnose the condition.

Further investigations are often required to determine appropriate follow-up and treatment. These include:

  • Repeat Pap tests
  • Colposcopy, a magnified examination of the cervix to detect abnormal cells so that biopsies can be taken
  • Endocervical curettage, to look for abnormal cells in the endocervical canal
  • Cone biopsy or loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP), is performed to rule out invasive cancer; during a cone biopsy, a cone-shaped piece of tissue is removed for lab examination. During LEEP, the abnormal tissue is cut out with a thin, low-voltage electrified wire loop.
  • HPV DNA test, to identify the HPV strains which are known to cause cervical cancer.


Treatment depends on different factors, including the severity of the condition and the age of the patient. For mild cervical dysplasia, often continued monitoring with repeat Pap tests is sufficient. For older women with mild cervical dysplasia, usually treatment is needed only if mild cervical dysplasia has persisted for two years or more, progressed to moderate or severe cervical dysplasia, or there are other medical problems.

Treatments for cervical dysplasia include

  • Cone biopsy
  • LEEP
  • Cryosurgery
  • Electrocauterization
  • Laser surgery

All forms of treatment are associated with risks as heavy bleeding and possible complications affecting pregnancy, so it’s important for patients to discuss these risks with their doctor prior to treatment. After treatment, follow-up testingis required, which may involve repeat Pap tests in six and 12 months or an HPV DNA test. After follow-up, regular Pap tests are necessary.


Women can lower their risk by avoiding the high-risk sexual behaviors. Sexually active women whose male partners correctly use condoms during every sexual encounter may have up to a 70% reduced risk of HPV infection.

Other preventive measures include avoiding smoking and every woman should begin cervical cancer screening at age 21.

Three vaccines help prevent infection with some types of HPV, including the types that cause most cases of cervical cancer.

According to guidelines endorsed by the CDC and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, girls should be vaccinated before they become sexually active. Recently the vaccine has  been approved for women up to age 45.


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20 November, 2021

5 easy ways to reduce stress during pregnancy

No matter how happy you are about your pregnancy, stress during the pregnancy phase is unavoidable. Most of the time, it is because of the hormones that play around. But there are a lot of other factors that account to stress. Managing stress during pregnancy is an efficient way to enjoy your pregnancy period.  Knowing the changes and accepting them happening to your body will help you best during this phase. However, know more efficient ways to reduce stress during pregnancy.  Here are the 5 easy ways to reduce stress during pregnancy.  Eat well and sleep well must be a routine  Nothing can replace the best benefits of proper food and sound sleep. Ensure that you follow a balanced diet with all the necessary supplements that your body needs and take enough rest. A night of proper sleep will make your day brighter and keep you comparatively in a cheerful mood. Rest when you are tired. Do not overdo during pregnancy. A perfect routine for food and sleep will ease up your hormones.  Surround yourself with positive energy. Talk to your friends and family. Pregnancy can put you through a lot of thoughts. It will make you think about the least possible negativity. Well, these are the instincts of the mother to safeguard her child. So
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10 November, 2023

5 best ways to avoid premature labour

The average length of a human gestation is 280 days or 40 weeks. The gestation period is usually counted from the first day of woman’s last menstrual period. It’s good and healthier for babies not to be born before they’re due. If the labour starts before 37 weeks of pregnancy, then it is usually called as premature labour. In this case, the baby is not fully grown and is not entirely ready to come into the outside world.In premature labour, the mother is unable to carry her baby for the full 9-month term. There are a number of reasons behind the preterm labour, including traumas, accidents and unpredictable diseases. Although the reasons are not clear, here are the common and best advisable ways to avoid premature labour.Learn what you can do to prevent early labour!  See your health care provider early and regularly during your pregnancy. Prenatal care is designed over the years to minimise the risk and complications of pregnancy. A good health care provider can ensure and plan your pregnancy. Attend all prenatal appointments with your doctor and have all the screening tests to check your health and your baby’s health. Understand the common problems of the pregnancy and check the root causes in case of complications. Understanding the root causes will help you and
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25 October, 2021

Pelvic Pain

Pelvic Pain Pelvic pain is pain in the lower part of the abdomen and pelvis. It can stem from multiple causes. Pelvic pain arises from the conditions associated with reproductive, urinary or digestive systems, or from muscles and ligaments in the pelvis. Pelvic pain can be due to irritation of nerves in the pelvis. Chronic pelvic pain is constant or intermittent pelvic pain for six months or more. Pelvic pain may spread to lower back, buttocks or thighs. Pelvic pain can also be situational, such as while using the bathroom or have sex. Causes More than one condition can lead to Pelvic pain. Common causes of acute pelvic pain Ovarian cyst– it is fluid-filled bubble arising from an ovary and causes pelvic pain when it ruptures or becomes twisted Acute pelvic inflammatory disease– a bacterial infection of the reproductive organs, which often follows a chlamydia or gonorrhoea infection and needs immediate treatment with Antibiotics. Ectopic Pregnancy (or other pregnancy-related conditions) Miscarriage or intrauterine fetal death Menstrual cramps (dysmenorrhea) Mittelschmerz (ovulation pain) Appendicitis â€“ a painful swelling of the appendix which usually causes pain on the lower right-hand side of your abdomen Peritonitis– inflammation of the peritoneum; it causes sudden abdominal pain that gradually becomes more severe and requires emergency treatment Urinary tract infection – it will cause pain or a burning sensation while urination Kidney stones Constipation or
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