19 February, 2021

Cervical Dysplasia

Cervical dysplasia is a precancerous condition during which abnormal cell growth occurs on the surface lining of the cervix or endocervical canal. It has strong association with sexually transmitted human papillomavirus (HPV) infection, cervical dysplasia is most common in women under age 30 but can develop at any age.

Often it doesn’t cause any symptoms, and is mostly discovered by a routine Pap test. So women who go undiagnosed or who don’t receive appropriate care are at higher risk of developing cervical cancer.

Causes of Cervical Dysplasia

HPV infection is common in women and men, and mostly affects sexually active women under age 20.

In most cases, the our immune system eliminates HPV and clears the infection. But in some women, the infection will persist and lead to cervical dysplasia. Of the more than 100 different strains of HPV, more than 35% of them can be sexually transmitted, and two particular types — HPV 16 and HPV 18 — are strongly associated with cervical cancer.

HPV is usually passed during sexual contact such as vaginal intercourse, anal intercourse, or oral sex. But it can also be transmitted by any skin-to-skin contact with an infected person.

As smoking suppresses immune system, smokers are twice as likely as nonsmokers to develop severe cervical dysplasia.

Risk Factors

  • Early initiation of sexual activity
  • Having multiple sex partners
  • Being with a partner who has multiple sex partners
  • Having sex with an uncircumcised man


As pelvic examination is usually normal in women with cervical dysplasia, a Pap test is necessary to diagnose the condition.

Further investigations are often required to determine appropriate follow-up and treatment. These include:

  • Repeat Pap tests
  • Colposcopy, a magnified examination of the cervix to detect abnormal cells so that biopsies can be taken
  • Endocervical curettage, to look for abnormal cells in the endocervical canal
  • Cone biopsy or loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP), is performed to rule out invasive cancer; during a cone biopsy, a cone-shaped piece of tissue is removed for lab examination. During LEEP, the abnormal tissue is cut out with a thin, low-voltage electrified wire loop.
  • HPV DNA test, to identify the HPV strains which are known to cause cervical cancer.


Treatment depends on different factors, including the severity of the condition and the age of the patient. For mild cervical dysplasia, often continued monitoring with repeat Pap tests is sufficient. For older women with mild cervical dysplasia, usually treatment is needed only if mild cervical dysplasia has persisted for two years or more, progressed to moderate or severe cervical dysplasia, or there are other medical problems.

Treatments for cervical dysplasia include

  • Cone biopsy
  • LEEP
  • Cryosurgery
  • Electrocauterization
  • Laser surgery

All forms of treatment are associated with risks as heavy bleeding and possible complications affecting pregnancy, so it’s important for patients to discuss these risks with their doctor prior to treatment. After treatment, follow-up testingis required, which may involve repeat Pap tests in six and 12 months or an HPV DNA test. After follow-up, regular Pap tests are necessary.


Women can lower their risk by avoiding the high-risk sexual behaviors. Sexually active women whose male partners correctly use condoms during every sexual encounter may have up to a 70% reduced risk of HPV infection.

Other preventive measures include avoiding smoking and every woman should begin cervical cancer screening at age 21.

Three vaccines help prevent infection with some types of HPV, including the types that cause most cases of cervical cancer.

According to guidelines endorsed by the CDC and the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, girls should be vaccinated before they become sexually active. Recently the vaccine has  been approved for women up to age 45.


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30 January, 2018

Ways in which Dads-to-be can help out in Delivery Room

In the delivery room, it is up to the mother to do all the pushing. However, dad can play a major role in the birthing process too. Labor can be overwhelming for first-time mothers. If your partner is able to have a normal, vaginal delivery, you can ask the doctor about being present in the delivery room during birthing process. As a dad, your support and encouragement can go a long way in comforting the mother. Here are some ways in which dads-to-be can help out in the delivery room: Provide Distractions Labor has the tendency to be long and tedious. You may be spending hours doing nothing but waiting for your baby to arrive. You can take your wife’s mind off her discomfort by keeping her distracted. Music, conversations or even card games are a great way to keep her mind occupied. Speak out on her Behalf To do this, it is important you discuss her birth plan in advance. Understand how she feels about episiotomies or what her expectations of the doctor are. Don’t wait until your partner begins having her contractions to find out what kind of assistance she needs from you. Knowing her birth plan in advance makes it easier for you to articulate her needs when she is in pain,
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02 February, 2018

Reasons for periods to be late if Pregnancy test is Negative

More often than not, a missed period is an indicator of a woman’s pregnancy. However, that isn’t always correct. A woman may have a delayed or missed period but still, have a negative pregnancy test. There may be several reasons for that happening. Here are some of them: Low Hormone Levels During early pregnancy, the levels of the pregnancy hormone human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) aren’t high enough for a home pregnancy test to detect. So if you’re trying to get pregnant, your negative test result on a home kit may not be correct and you might be pregnant. A woman’s cycle may keep varying and if she conceives later in the cycle, the hormone levels may be low at the time of her missed period. To rule out any complications, be sure to talk to your doctor if you miss your periods and continue to do so. Ectopic Pregnancy Although rare, an ectopic pregnancy can show up as negative on a home pregnancy test. Only about 3 percent or fewer cases of negative tests point towards an ectopic pregnancy. If you have these symptoms along with a negative result, see your doctor immediately: Severe pain in lower abdomen or on one side Dizziness or lightheadedness Bleeding or spotting Nausea and vomiting
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10 February, 2018

5 Home remedies for Gas during Pregnancy

Experiencing gas is common during pregnancy. The female body goes through several changes during pregnancy and gas is a result of certain normal body functions. The hormone progesterone, which is responsible for supporting your pregnancy, is also the reason behind that gassy feeling. It relaxes the muscles in your intestine and slows down the digestion process. This allows gas build up and causes bloating, burping, and flatulence. Certain foods and even your prenatal vitamins can cause you to feel gassy. The good news is, there are several things you can try at home to ease gas during pregnancy. Here are some of them: Drink Lots of Fluids Make sure you drink a lot of water every day to avoid gas during pregnancy. Aim for 10-12 glasses per day. You can also include other fluids such as juices. However, if you’re suffering from irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), make sure the juice you drink is low in gas and bloating-promoting sugars. Move Around In order to find relief from gas during pregnancy, make physical activity and exercise a part of your daily routine. Walk or exercise every day for at least 30 minutes. Not only does it help keep you physically and emotionally fit, it can also help prevent constipation and speed up digestion. Remember to talk
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