Bringing a new life to an existence is one of the most precious moments of any parent’s life. At KIMS Cuddles, we strive to make those precious moments of a mother even more memorable and cherishing through our services.
Bedside Echocardiography And Cardiac Services
Bed side echocardiography is very important for early diagnosis and prompt management of cardiac defects. We have a team of trained cardiologists available round the clock....
Retinopathy of prematurity of prematurity (ROP) is a disease of very preterm babies, which can lead to blindness if not treated in time. To prevent ROP, our ophthalmologists will p...
We have a dedicated Department of Fetal medicine where your baby while in your uterus is screened for congenital defects, appropriate growth and development. Our team is competent ...
Genetic Counselling Services
All babies born or admitted to our hospital are screened for common metabolic and genetic diseases. Our team along with the genetic department at KIMS provide full support to babie...
High Frequency Ventilators
Babies who have severe lung disease may fail on conventional ventilators. For such babies we have the facility of high frequency ventilation....
Sick newborns especially preterms may have lung immaturity/dysfunction. These neonates may require ventilator support....
Our team includes Occupational therapist and support staff who visit the NICU regularly and help in the developmental support of the sick babies. This support continues even after ...
Premature babies periodically need to be evaluated by ultrasound of brain. We have facility of bedside ultrasound and if required we have advanced neuroimaging facilities like MRI ...
Parents are also involved in the care of their sick baby; they are encouraged to hold the baby next to their skin (Kangaroo Mother Care), which helps in better growth and developme...
The small preterm and sick neonates are not able to tolerate oral feeds well and requires intravenous nutrition in form of glucose, fats and proteins. This parenteral nutrition is ...
Phototherapy And Exchange Transfusion
Babies who develop significant jaundice require special lights called phototherapy and in rare cases may require exchange transfusion....
Universal Hearing Screening
All babies born in KIMS Cuddles undergo hearing tests to detect early deafness....
B/o Riyana Begum
B/o Mrs. M. Sravani
Care of a Healthy Newborn at Home - Clearing Parental Doubts and Myths
Dr. Nikhil Tenneti, Neonatology Services
23 December, 2022
Three Surprising Causes of Infant Weight Loss
A Baby’s weight during their growth plays a significant role. It helps us track their development and growth. It is like a direct indicator of their healthy upbringing. Then, what if you notice your baby is underweight or losing weight. Do not panic; it is not very dangerous. However, it is still not a great sign to consider. It is good to know the reasons behind infant weight loss. We might do some of these on a regular basis without knowing the fact how harmful they are for your kids. Check out these three surprising causes of infant weight loss. Bathing the baby soon after feeding A lot of parents think that a full stomach will keep the baby put during the bath. Maybe, babies might feel drowsy and do not make much noise, but this daily will affect their metabolism. When an infant is fed, the food takes time to digest, just as it does in any adult’s body. Now, bathing the baby cools down the body and slows down the metabolism rate. This causes late digestion, indigestion and gas issues in the tiny ones. Having longer gaps between the meals You might have already observed how less your little ones consume at a time. Yes, their little stomachs cannot fit in more. But, their growing body requires more food. Thus, we need to feed them more. Long spans of time between meals trigger gas in toddlers. This gas will bloat their stomach for hours, leaving them uncomfortable, which in turn leads to rejection of food. Giving liquids or breastfeeds before actual meals For babies older than six months, supplying solid food is an important part of nutrition. Giving breastfeeds, water or any liquids before actual meals will occupy their tiny stomachs. Thus, avoid the food that is provided which has more nutritional value. Baby meals must be adequately planned, and you should take some extra care about timing. Do not worry about your baby’s weight if you are following the above three measures. If that’s not the case, think of it and monitor your baby’s weight and metabolism levels. Consult a paediatrician or doctor for better tips and tracking measures of your baby’s growth!! *Information shared here is for general purpose. Please take doctors’ advice before taking any decision.
20 November, 2022
Bone and Joint Infections In Children You must be aware of
Bone and Joint infections are generally termed as Musculoskeletal disorders. Musculoskeletal disorders are any disease that affects the joints, ligaments, nerves, muscles, and bones. These are commonly caused due to the infection, injury, or it can be inherited and develop as a part of a child’s growth. At times they occur for no known reason at all.A child’s bones grow continually and thus reshape them after every few years. The old bone tissue is gradually replaced by new bone tissue making the difference. Most of the disorders affecting the bones of a child occur in a growing child musculoskeletal system. These disorders may get worse or better as the child grows.Musculoskeletal conditions in children and teenagers are becoming more common now. They require conscious observation and understanding to avoid and treat their symptoms. This World Pediatric Bone and Joint Day (October 19th) let us have awareness about the impact of musculoskeletal conditions in children. Common Bone and Joint Infections observed in children Here is the list of common bone and joint infections seen in children: Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) Post-Streptococcal Reactive Arthritis (PSRA) Septic Arthritis (Joint Infection) Bone fractures Muscular dystrophy Developmental dysplasia of the hip Tendinitis Osteoporosis (bone infection) Symptoms to recognise Musculoskeletal disorders As children cannot communicate with the issues directly, it is important for the parents to catch up their signs. The following are the common symptoms a child tend to show while going through musculoskeletal disorders. Fever and Warmth Redness near the infected area Pains, Swellings Infants may show irritable and lethargic behaviour Refuse to eat, or vomit Limited movement of the infected area Treatment Procedures available for Bone and Joint Infections in Children A timely diagnosis plays a crucial role in the better treatment process for children. If ignored or not recognised for long, these infections tend to evolve into chronic disorders. The following mentioned procedures have proven to show good results for the immediate diagnosis. Antibiotics to control the infection and spread to other parts of the body. Medication to help manage pain and swelling of the infected area without further damage In case of severe damage, surgery can help clean out the affected areas in and around the affected bones. It is estimated that nearly 48% of adults and 10% of children have a musculoskeletal condition. However, the myth that children do not contract musculoskeletal disorders has to be removed. Diagnosing and treating them timely will help you save them from severe health conditions in future. *Information shared here is for general purpose. Please take doctors’ advice before taking any decision.
29 January, 2022
Common Diseases and Issues: Caring For a Baby And How To Prevent Them.
Caring for a baby is very crucial because during the initial first year the baby’s immune system is quite weak. Due to this, there are amplified chances for him or her to develop several common diseases in babies or sickness in infant. But with the right care, you can treat common diseases in babies easily. However, new parents and caregivers may have several questions related to their infants’ healthcare. So this guide will help you to know how to care for your baby and prevent the common diseases in babies and sickness in infant. Now let’s have a look at the common diseases in babies worth one year or less and how to care for them, or how to prevent them earlier only. Bowel movements Keeping track of the bowel movement of your infant is crucial because this can help you to know if your infant is likely to develop any disease. So the different factors you need to consider regarding the bowel movement of your baby are as follows. Consistency. Initially, the consistency of your kid’s stool will range from loose, runny or soft. However, infant or formula-fed may have stools with a tan yellow shade and firmer as compared to the infants who are breastfed. All you need to consider while checking the consistency of your infants’ stool is that it should not be hard or very dry because this can be a sign of dehydration. Colour. The Initial bowel movement of a newborn is generally a dark green or black coloured substance known as meconium. However, once the meconium has passed, you can see that the colour of the stools will turn yellowish-green. Frequency. When your baby has reached the duration of three to six weeks, he or she should have one bowel movement per week in case you breastfeed the infant. However, if you formula feed your infant, then the baby will have fewer bowel movements than this. If you find hard stools, you should immediately check with your healthcare provider as this could be a symptom of a sickness in infant known as Constipation Colics In case your baby is continuously crying in the evening and it gets worse through the night, then this could be a symptom of another sickness in infant known as colic. According to the research conducted by the American Association of Paediatrics, approximately 1/5th of the babies between the age of two to four weeks have an amplified risk of developing colic. Being one of the common diseases in babies, the symptoms can include excessive crying or screaming by the babies, passing gas or pulling up their legs. In some cases, the baby might even enlarge their stomachs. Once your baby enters the duration of three to four months, the colic is likely to improve. Though there is no definite reason for developing colic, sometimes a change of diet for the breastfeeding mother or changing the bottle-fed formula of the infants can help. You can even truncate the adverse effects of colic by a pacifier or snugly wrapping your baby in a blanket. Jaundice Due to the buildup of bilirubin, a substance produced by the body during the breakdown of the old red blood cells, your baby might get one of the most common diseases in babies known as jaundice. Jaundice causes a yellowish tinge in your baby’s mouth, eyes and skin. In case the liver of the baby is unable to remove bilirubin from the body in the first few days after birth, the infant may get jaundice. This sickness in infant should be immediately treated by contacting your healthcare provider. Generally, the infants need no treatment during jaundice but your healthcare provider may sometimes prescribe phototherapy for the infant. *Information shared here is for general purpose. Please take doctors’ advice before making any decision.
24 January, 2022
Baby’s First Year – Feeding Schedule and Nutrition Tips
You’ve happily clicked a snap of your little munchkin eating messily! That’s great, but now are you worried about how to provide the best nutrition to your baby in the first year? Fret not, here’s a guide on the feeding schedule for baby in the first year. Keeping in mind the fact that different infants require a different amount of nutrition, the nutrition you provide to your infant depends on his or her age, appetite, and body weight. So let’s have a glance at the healthy food for baby according to their age in the first year of birth. Newborns. As you must know, infants should receive the nutrition and calories only through breast milk or formula. So let’s know the feeding schedule for baby with both these items. Breast milk According to the American Academy of Paediatrics, an infant should drink one to two ounces of breast milk per feeding. However, once your baby is at least two weeks old, the amount of this quantity will amplify to two to three ounces. Generally, you need to feed breast milk to your newborn every two to three hours ass it proves to be a healthy food for baby. Formula. If you’re opting to include a formula in the feeding schedule for baby, then make sure to provide two to three Oz per feeding. Additionally, you need to remember that the infants take up formula every three to four hours. Once your baby grows, gradually the amount of this liquid even increases. According to an associate professor of general pediatrics in the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health, you should provide 2.5 ounces of formula per pound of your baby’s weight. 1-3 months old babies. The feeding schedule for baby gradually heightens as he or she enters the three months of age threshold. During this period, the baby will become more vocal when his or her appetite increases. The healthy food for baby during this period is also either breast milk or formula. According to the American Academy of Paediatrics, a two-month-old baby can consume four to five Oz of breast milk or formula every three to four hours. Four to six months old. When the babies reach five to six months of age, they tend to start eating solids. Some of the indicators showing that your infant may now be ready to take in solids include their grabbing skills and head and neck control. So during this duration, you can aim at providing one to two tablespoons of food to your child twice a day. However, make sure not to substitute solid food with milk completely. The American Academy of Paediatrics suggests including some 8 ounces per feeding every four to five hours once your baby is six months old. 6-9 months old. Healthy food for baby when he or she is 6 to 9 months old includes both milk and solid items. However, during this period, the major calories should still come from breast milk or formula. Generally, you may aim at feeding up to two meals to your child that include two to four tablespoons each. You can introduce solid items to your child during this period that include single-grain baby cereals, pureed fruits, vegetables or meats. At the same time, when breastfeeding, make sure not to cross the limit of 32 ounces of formula per day. 9 to 12 months old Once your baby enters this age threshold, the feeding schedule for baby should provide half the calories from food and half from breast milk or formula. Generally, babies even like to play with their food and explore their tastes during this period. So you can even consider adding yogurt, or an additional dip with their whole-grain crackers or food items. So now you can create a feeding schedule for baby that includes healthy food for baby. *Information shared here is for general purpose. Please take doctors’ advice before making any decision.
21 January, 2022
What is a Neonatal Care Specialist and What’s Their Job Description?
Once a baby enters into this world, he or she needs to be taken care of. The transition of the baby from the womb to the outside world is made smoother with the efficacious services of a neonatal care specialist. A neonatologist or a Neonatal Care Specialist is a physician who provides care for newborns, especially infants that are born prematurely and have different health issues. Due to this, the services of a Neonatal care specialist are hired by different Community hospitals, University Medical centers, and other children’s hospitals. Now let’s have a peek at the job description and the qualifications or education required to become a Neonatal care specialist. Education of a Neonatal care specialist What is a Neonatal doctor? A Neonatal doctor or a neonatologist is a physician responsible to maintain the proper nutrition of a newborn. To practice the profession of a neonatal care specialist, you need to acquire a demanding educational path. This means you have to procure your undergraduate degree and then spend four years in a medical school. Once medical school is done, a neonatologist spends another three years in residency in general pediatrics. When your education is completed, you need to obtain general certification from the American Board of Paediatrics. This requires you to pass certain education requirements along with the certification exam. Once done, you are ready to practice the different job roles and responsibilities of a neonatologist. Job description and responsibilities of a neonatal care specialist. The basic job role and responsibility of a Neonatal care specialist is to ensure that the newborn receives proper nutrition and is taken care of to the best extent. For this, the neonatologist might consult the parents, paediatricians and other healthcare providers of the infant. In normal circumstances, most pediatrics have enough experience and education to provide nutrition and care to infants. However, in the cases where a baby is born prematurely or has several other health issues, the services of a neonatal care specialist are to be hired. These physicians work in Intensive care units and are responsible to diagnose several conditions in the infants after their birth. They are responsible to treat infections, birth defects and breathing problems in premature babies by coordinating with their healthcare providers. Sometimes when the medical issues of the baby are known in advance, the neonatal care specialist may even be present during labour. Or, he or she may arrive just after birth for a short-term follow up care of the infant before passing the child to the pediatrician. Working conditions of a neonatologist Just like other doctors, the working conditions of a fetal treatment specialist require working for long hours. They may even be called during the weekends and evenings and spend most of the time standing or walking. Additionally, the neonatal care specialists often get emotionally connected with their patients and hence may spend additional time with them.
10 January, 2022
Newborn Home Checklist for Moms to Be
The arrival of a newborn in your family can be an exciting yet daunting task. Though you may be filled with enthusiasm, the road ahead will be full of various obstacles. So you must be prepared for the new things while you welcome the tiny little human into this world. One of the best ways to prepare for the arrival of a newborn in your family is to concoct a neonatal checklist for mom. But before creating the newborn checklist for Mom, have you ever thought about what you really need to welcome your newborn into this world? Generally, the new parents require some essential baby care items that are critical to providing proper care. Additionally, certain items are not mandatory but prove to be helpful for taking care of infants. So here’s a newborn checklist for moms that will help you to be a parent like a pro! Get ready to tick off these items from your shopping list! Clothing items In the first year, you need to get clothing items for your infants according to the different seasons. But while purchasing, make sure to get clothes that are specifically meant for infants or newborns of age ‘0-1’. Some of the essential clothing items to incorporate in your neonatal checklist for mom are- Infant t-shirts Short-sleeved onesies and long-sleeved onesies Seasonal clothes to go out Infant snowsuit (if you wish to go out in cold) Pairs of socks Cotton pants Cotton sweaters or hoodies Knitted caps Nursery items In the modern world, today’s nurseries are unequivocally a place to nurture your baby. However, the least you require will be- A clean place for your child to sleep A place for you to change your baby’s diapers A place to store your baby’s clothes and other essential commodities Besides having a place for your baby, you need to embellish this place with some other nursery items, like- A mattress or a crib. A rocking chair or footrest Changing table Music player if required. Diapers Formulating a newborn checklist for moms is almost impossible without including diapers in them. While deciding the different types of diapers for your newborn, you have several choices. Firstly, you could use either reusable cloth diapers or disposable diapers. On the other hand, you can even use a combination of these both. Besides this, you even need to remember about the baby wipes that come in different varieties. The different options available with the baby wipes include dry or moist wipes and reusable or disposable wipes. So besides the diapers, other diapering essentials that you need to include in the neonatal checklist for Mom are. Diaper rash ointment Two to four packets of newborn or size 1 diapers. Changing table pads. Cotton clothes or wipes Wipe holder. Toys to distract the baby during changing. A washable diaper bag to store your diapers. Other essentials Some other essential items required for feeding or bathing for your newborn to be included in the newborn checklist for moms are. Nursing pillow Nursing bras. Bottlebrush Feeding bottles with newborn nipples Baby shampoo and body wash. Cotton swabs. Bathing tub for infants. Bathtub toys for babies. Cotton blankets, and wearable blankets. So get ready to include all the above-mentioned items in your newborn checklist for moms and get them at the right time. *Information shared here is for general purpose. Please take doctors’ advice before making any decision.
06 January, 2022
Skin Care Advice And Protecting Your Baby’s Skin
Once you have brought your newborn home, the most important thing on your list should be to keep him or her warm and nourished. Knowing skin care tips for babies is crucial because newborn skin is delicate and it requires special care. Besides the normal rashes, different fragrances, chemicals or even detergents and baby products can cause irritation, allergies, dryness and chap on your infant’s skin. But if you know the right skin protection tips, you can save your baby from all such issues. So let’s have a glance at the skin care tips for babies that will help you to protect your babies skin. Natural skin care advice for babies A newborn baby has a natural baby skin defensive mechanism with wrinkly skin and the protective covering known as vernix. This skin layer naturally peels off in the initial first week of the baby. So you need to make sure not to invade this natural process by rubbing or treating their baby’s skin, with creams and lotions in the initial first week. However, in case your child is born past the due date, then the naturally peeling off process is likely to be already finished while they are inside the womb. Skin care tips for babies. Besides not invading with the natural skin defensive mechanism of the babies, certain other skin protection tips for your newborns are explained below. The most crucial thing which you should remember before practising any skin care tips for babies is that in the case of newborns and infants, ‘less is more’. Do not commit the mistake of bathing your baby frequently. By frequently, here we mean not to bathe your baby more than three times in a single week during the first year of your baby’s life. In case you frequently bathe your baby, you are only depriving his/her skin of natural oils. Not only this, but frequent bathing can even lead to dry skin or sometimes amplify eczema. So this is one of the most crucial skin protection tips to remember for your infant. Instead of bathing, you can conduct a sponge bath two to three times a week. This is because generally, the newborns don’t get very dirty except for the diaper changes or droolings. Since they are not working, playing or working out, they are generally clean. Between the sponge baths, you can simply clean your baby’s diaper area and mouth with a cleanser or little water. Make sure not to use Scented baby products on your baby’s skin during the early months. You never know which product or ingredient can prove to be harmful or allergic to your infant’s skin. It is quite essential to wash your baby’s clothes before they are worn. However, while washing, make sure to use a baby laundry detergent that is free from any dyes or fragrances. Due to the same reason, it is advised not to wash your baby’s clothes, blanket or bedding with your family’s clothes. Another alternative here can be to use the same baby laundry detergent for the entire family. To evade the problems of eczema or dry skin on your baby, you should prefer soft clothing, like cotton. In order to avoid diaper rashes, check your baby’s diaper frequently and change them if they are wet or soiled. You should avoid using baby wipes and instead use a soft cloth. The reason behind this is that some of the wipes have alcohol or perfumes in them that can further irritate your child’s skin and cause rashness. So these are some of the important skin care tips for babies that you should follow. *Information shared here is for general purpose. Please take doctors’ advice before making any decision.
04 January, 2022
What are the Signs of a Sick Baby? The Symptoms of Conditions That Require Neonatal Treatment.
You may be filled with energy and enthusiasm while bringing your baby home from the hospital. However, having a newborn and taking care of him or her in the initial few months can be a stressful and daunting task. One of the major reasons behind worrying is that the baby may get sick often. But how will you know when your newborn gets sick? Since initially, you do not know the normal behavior of your infant, identifying the newborn signs or newborn symptoms can be difficult. Generally, the newborn signs can be subtle even when the infant is suffering from a serious illness. Since the immune system of the infants is not so strong, you must identify the newborn signs and symptoms and evade any infections. Here’s a guide that will help you to know the newborn symptoms and conditions that require neonatal treatment in your infant. Newborn symptoms that may require neonatal treatment. Differentiation between the normal and abnormal conditions in newborns is crucial. You should watch out for any of the newborn signs that require neonatal treatment and call your doctor when necessary. So here’s a glance at some of the newborn signs that will help you to evade any infection in your infant. Abdominal distention. Generally, the abdomen of a baby feels soft between feedings. However, if you feel that your infant’s abdomen is hard or swollen then there could be a problem with gas or Constipation. The swollen stomach can even lead to an intestinal infection or problem in case your child hasn’t had a bowel movement for more than a day or two. Blue baby Generally, newborns may have mildly blue hands, feet, face, tongue, or lips, in case they feel cold or cry hard. However, if you see that the blue coloring persists in your baby for several days along with feeding and breathing issues, then it might be time to visit your doctor. Such newborn signs can be a symptom of an infection or signify an issue in the heart or the lungs. Coughing while feeding. Initially, the newborns may cough while they learn to feed. However, in case your newborn coughs regularly whenever he or she is trying to eat, then it could be a symptom of a problem in the digestive system or the lungs of the child. Amplified crying. Generally crying is a normal symptom in newborns. When you see your newborns crying, you can check whether they are warm, fed, and have a clean diaper. But in rare situations, the newborns may cry and shriek out in different sounds for abnormally long periods. This could be a newborn sign of an illness and hence, you should call a doctor. Jaundice The mild yellowish tinge in the infants, known as mild jaundice is completely harmless. However, if the build-up of bilirubin in the baby’s blood is heightened, then jaundice may be harmful. If you notice your baby developing jaundice to a high extent, then you should call the doctor. *Information shared here is for general purpose. Please take doctors’ advice before making any decision.
23 November, 2021
Newborn Sleep Sleep patterns in newborn babies is different from that of children in that they usually sleep for most of the time in a day. Often this will be hard for the new parents to know what normal sleep pattern of their newborn baby is and how long a baby will sleep. How are sleep patterns in newborn? Newborn baby sleep for most of the time in a 24hour period and wakes up in between for feeding every few hours. There will not be any fixed schedule for the newborn sleep and their day and nights are little confusing. Most of the newborn babies sleep for about 16 to 18hours duration in a 24hour period. They sleep mostly in the day time and will be awake during night time. This could be probably due to sleep pattern during the stay in their mother’s womb. They usually start to learn the day and night rhythm by about 6 to 8weeks of age. But the sleep patterns can vary and some babies may not sleep during night time through their initial few months. Newborn baby will wake up for feeds atleast once in every 2 to 3 hours. Parents need to closely watch for the changes that happen in the sleep patterns of the newborn as their sleep duration will gradually decrease and awake period increases through their first year of life. How can we identify the sleep readiness of the newborn baby? The following signs can help you to know the readiness for sleep. Fussiness Excessive Yawning Not interested in the surroundings Redness of the eyes What are the different alert phases in a newborn? Newborns also differ in their alertness as well. Quiet & alert phase: Phase where the baby is awake, not crying, calm and interested in the surrounding. Active & alert phase: Phase where the baby is active and attentive to sounds. Crying phase: This follows active and alert phase. Baby can be easily over stimulated, and cries out loudly. Baby can be held and swaddled to calm down. How can you help the baby to fall asleep? When the newborn baby shows signs of sleep readiness, they can be held in your arms, make the environment comfortable, calm and quiet. Swaddling also help them to feel safe and help in falling asleep. What sleep positions are best for a baby? Putting the baby on his or her back is safest. Prone position (placing baby on tummy) and side sleeping positions has an increased risk of sudden infant death (SIDS) as per research. What are the things to keep in mind while making a newborn sleep? As per American Academy of Paediatrics (AAP) recommendations on infant bedding: Baby should be placed on his or her back on a firm surface Avoid pillows, soft toys, comforters in the baby’s bed Tuck a thin blanket only upto baby’s chest Baby’s face should remain uncovered.
13 October, 2021
Fever In Newborn
Authored By: Dr. Aravinda Lochani T
Normal body temperature is 98.6 F or 37 C (+/- 0.5 C). Any body temperature greater than 99.5 F or 37. 5 C is termed as fever in newborns. Fever is the body’s defense mechanism that helps to fight infection or inflammation. How to measure fever: By using a digital thermometer in the axilla (armpit) or with the help of an infrared thermometer which measures the skin temperature (usually measured from the forehead) Causes of fever: Dehydration (due to poor feeding) Hot environment or proximity to sunlight Wrapping the baby in too many clothes Infection Postvaccination Maternal fever at the time of delivery Symptoms: The baby may be irritable, appear flushed, have either fast breathing or decreased breathing efforts, have dull activity, abnormal tone, and decreased intake of feeds Untreated fever or infection may lead to seizures and has increased risk of mortality. What to do when your baby has fever: First unwrap the baby and keep the baby in a normal environment (25-28 C). Try to give breastfeed/expressed breast milk as spoon feed to the baby. Recheck the temperature after 20-30 minutes. If baby’s temperature is normal and baby is feeding adequately, ensure frequent feeds. A properly fed baby sleeps comfortably between two feeding sessions, passes urine 8-10 times in a day and gains weight consistently. If the baby is still having a temperature of > 99.5 F, or having any other symptoms mentioned above, approach the doctor as early as possible for complete evaluation of dehydration/ infection. KEEPING BABIES WARM (PREVENTING HYPOTHERMIA) Normal body temperature in adults is maintained by metabolism (through brown fat stored inside the body) as well as by shivering. Babies, before they were born, lie inside the mother’s womb, where the amniotic fluid keeps the baby warm. Normal body temperature of newborns measured in the axilla(armpit) is between 36.5 C- 37.5 C. After birth babies tend to become hypothermic due to the cold environment and also because of not able to generate appropriate shivering response. Low body temperature leads to dull activity, poor feeding, increased risk of infections and also increased risk of mortality. How to avoid hypothermia (or low body temperature) in term babies: Immediately after birth baby should be dried fully with a clean towel and placed on the mother’s chest/ abdomen. Breast feeding should be initiated within 1 hour of birth and baby should be roomed in with the mother throughout the day. Breast feeding should be encouraged every 2nd hourly, in the first few postnatal days. Avoid bathing the baby until the cord falls off. Keep the baby always covered with cap, socks, mittens and dress. Keep the baby wrapped properly all the time. Maintain the room temperature between 25- 28 C. Avoid placing the baby near open window or doors where there might be exposure to cold air/draught. The palms and soles of the baby should be as warm as the chest when the skin temperature of the baby is felt by the back of the parent’s hand. If the soles of the baby feel cold compared to chest, baby is in cold stress and needs to be clothed and wrapped properly If for any reason, baby’s skin feels cold, or baby is dull with decreased intake of feeds, contact the health care personnel. PREMATURE INFANTS: Premature infants are more vulnerable to low body temperature because of: A higher skin surface area compared to weight.Thin skin with no subcutaneous fat which leads to evaporative heat loss.Less brown fat and poor vasomotor control. Inability to establish full feeds at birth due to gut immaturity Therefore premature babies need to be cared for in the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU), where the babies will be placed under radiant warmers to maintain body temperature. Very premature babies are usually placed inside incubators where the humidity of the baby’s environment can also be controlled to prevent evaporative heat losses through the skin. Premature babies, if they need respiratory support are provided with heated and humidified air through bubble CPAPs or ventilators. Kangaroo mother care, initiated as soon as the baby is stable also keeps the baby warm.