Does IUD cause infertility? Intrauterine Device (IUD) is increasingly becoming popular as a means of intrauterine contraception. It is a tiny, flexible, T-shaped device that is inserted into the uterus to prevent pregnancy. It works as a long-term contraception and can be reversed easily.
IUDs work in different ways to prevent pregnancy by changing the way sperm cells move. The copper IUD repels sperm and prevents them from traveling to the egg. Hormonal IUDs like Mirena, thicken the mucus that lives on the cervix, to block and trap the sperm. The hormones also sometimes stop eggs from leaving ovaries. This does not mean IUDs lead to infertility.
IUDs and Infertility
Some people believe that using IUDs can lead to pelvic inflammatory disease (PID), an infection that causes inflammation of the uterus lining, fallopian tubes or the ovaries. If left untreated, PID can cause permanent blocking of the fallopian tubes, which leads to infertility. However, there isn’t enough conclusive proof to link usage of IUDs to cause PID.
Several studies have indicated the previous or current use of an IUD does not increase the risk of tubal blockage or infertility. A case-controlled study of 1,895 women with primary tubal infertility indicated that:
- Women who used contraception like copper IUDs, as compared with women who had no prior contraception use, did not face any increased risk of tubal blockage.
- Women whose partners used condoms had a 50% lower risk of tubal blockage than those who used no contraception.
- Using IUDs for long, removing IUDS due to side effects, or other symptoms related to use of IUDs did not increase the risk of tubal blockage and infertility.
Even the World Health Organization has tried to dispel the concerns among many women regarding the use of IUD being linked to PID and tubal infertility. However, they found that methodological problems in previous researches have overestimated the IUD-associated risk of PID.
Infertility due to Tubal Blockage
While Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) can cause tubal blockage, infertility in this case is more likely due to Sexually Transmitted Infections (STI). Several studies have indicated that presence of chlamydia antibodies can cause tubal blockage. Antibodies are created by the body to fight infection. Once the infection is gone, antibodies remain in the bloodstream and help predict the presence of tubal blockage. This means infertility is more likely when there is untreated STI.
Infertility after removing IUDs
It is only a myth that IUDs will cause infertility, ectopic pregnancy, or miscarriage after removing them. Using correct insertion techniques can ensure there is no problem in future pregnancies.
Rarely does a woman get pregnant after inserting IUD. In such cases, there is a higher risk of preterm delivery or first and second trimester miscarriage. Removal of IUD reduces these risks, although removal procedure can possibly lead to miscarriage.
Intrauterine Devices are very safe to use and many women around the world are choosing them as a means of contraception. Hope this blog about does IUD cause infertility was helpful to you. If you need more information about IUDs, book your appointment with our experts at KIMS Cuddles to know more about does IUD cause infertility.