08 July, 2021

Obstetrician & Gynaecologist

Understanding Urinary Incontinence

Urinary incontinence is the involuntary loss of urine. Urinary incontinence may be a temporary condition that results from an underlying medical condition.The severity ranges from occasionally leaking urine when you cough or sneeze to having an intense urge to urinate that you don’t get to a toilet in time. Though it occurs more frequently as people get older, urinary incontinence isn’t an inevitable consequence of aging.


Based on symptoms there are following types of incontinence-

  • Stress incontinence. Urine leaks when when there is pressure on bladder by coughing, sneezing, laughing, exercising or lifting something heavy.
  • Urge incontinence. It is a sudden, intense urge to urinate leading to involuntary loss of urine. It can be caused by a minor condition, such as infection, or a more-severe condition such as a neurologic disorder or diabetes.
  • Overflow incontinence. Its frequent or constant dribbling of urine due to incomplete emptying of bladder.
  • Functional incontinence. A physical or mental impairment leads to inability to reach toilet in time. 
  • Mixed incontinence. Presence of more than one type of urinary incontinence.


Urinary incontinence isn’t a disease, it’s a symptom. It can be caused by routine habits, underlying medical conditions or physical problems.

Temporary urinary incontinence

Certain drinks, foods and medications acts as diuretics -They include:

  • Alcohol
  • Caffeine
  • Carbonated drinks and sparkling water
  • Artificial sweeteners
  • Chocolate
  • Chili peppers
  • Foods high in spice, sugar or acid especially citrus fruits
  • Heart and blood pressure medications, sedatives, and muscle relaxants
  • Large doses of vitamin C

Urinary incontinence may also be caused by medical condition those can be treated easily such as:

  • Urinary tract infection. Infections irritates urinary bladder, leading to strong urges to urinate, and occasionally incontinence.
  • Constipation. The rectum is located near the bladder and shares similar nerve supply. Hard, compacted stool in your rectum causes these nerves to be overactive and increase urinary frequency.

Persistent urinary incontinence

Urinary incontinence can also be a persistent condition caused by underlying physical problems or changes, including:

  • Pregnancy. Hormonal changes induced by pregnancy and the increased weight of the fetus can lead to stress incontinence.
  • Childbirth. Muscles supporting bladder and bladder nerves gets damaged in the process of vaginal birth.
  • Changes with age. Aging of the bladder muscle leads to decrease in storage capacity of bladder. Also, frequency of involuntary bladder contractions increases as you get older.
  • Menopause. After menopause deficiency of estrogen, a hormone that helps keep the lining of the bladder and urethra healthy. Deterioration of these tissues can aggravate incontinence.
  • Hysterectomy. In women, the supporting muscles and ligaments are same for bladder and uterus. Any surgery that involves a woman’s reproductive system, may damage the supporting pelvic floor muscles, which can lead to incontinence.
  • Obstruction. A tumor  along urinary tract blocks the normal flow of urine, leading to overflow incontinence. Urinary stones or stone-like masses that form in the bladder — sometimes cause urine leakage.
  • Neurological disorders. Parkinson’s disease, Multiple sclerosis, a stroke, a brain tumor or a spinal injury can interfere with nerve signals involved in bladder control, causing urinary incontinence.


Thorough history and physical examination. Simple maneuver like coughing can demonstrate incontinence.

  • Urinalysis- is done to look for signs of infection, traces of blood or other abnormalities in urine.
  • Bladder diary. For several days a record has to be maintained mentioning how much you drink, when you urinate, the amount of urine you produce, whether you had an urge to urinate and the number of incontinence episodes.
  • Post-void residual measurement.

 If further information is needed tests, such as urodynamic testing and pelvic ultrasound might be recommended . These tests are usually recommeded prior to surgery.


Specific treatment for urinary incontinence will be determined based on:

  • Your age, overall health and medical history
  • Type of incontinence and extent of the disease
  • Your tolerance for specific medications, procedures or therapies
  • Expectations for the course of the disease

Treatment may include:

  • Behavioral therapies:
    • Bladder training: Trains people to resist the urge to void and gradually increase the intervals between voiding.
    • Toileting assistance: Uses routine or scheduled toileting, habit training schedules and prompted voiding to empty the bladder regularly to prevent leaking.
  • Diet modifications: Removing bladder irritants, such as caffeine, alcohol and citrus fruits from diet.
  • Pelvic muscle rehabilitation (to improve pelvic muscle functioning)
    • Kegel exercises: can improve, and even prevent, urinary incontinence.
    • Biofeedback: Used with Kegel exercises, biofeedback helps people gain awareness and control of their pelvic muscles.
    • Vaginal weight training: Small weights are held within the vagina which leads to strenghtening the vaginal muscles.
    • Pelvic floor electrical stimulation: Mild electrical pulses are given to pelvic floor muscles which stimulate muscle contractions.
  • Medication :
    • Anticholinergic medications
    • Vaginal estrogen
  • Pessary (is worn inside the vagina to prevent leakage)
  • Office procedure
    • Botox injections into bladder
    • Urethral bulking agents
    • Peripheral nerve stimulation
  • Surgery 
    • Slings (can be synthetic or natural tissue)
    • Bladder suspension
    • Peripheral nerve stimulation


blog featured image

20 November, 2021

5 easy ways to reduce stress during pregnancy

No matter how happy you are about your pregnancy, stress during the pregnancy phase is unavoidable. Most of the time, it is because of the hormones that play around. But there are a lot of other factors that account to stress. Managing stress during pregnancy is an efficient way to enjoy your pregnancy period.  Knowing the changes and accepting them happening to your body will help you best during this phase. However, know more efficient ways to reduce stress during pregnancy.  Here are the 5 easy ways to reduce stress during pregnancy.  Eat well and sleep well must be a routine  Nothing can replace the best benefits of proper food and sound sleep. Ensure that you follow a balanced diet with all the necessary supplements that your body needs and take enough rest. A night of proper sleep will make your day brighter and keep you comparatively in a cheerful mood. Rest when you are tired. Do not overdo during pregnancy. A perfect routine for food and sleep will ease up your hormones.  Surround yourself with positive energy. Talk to your friends and family. Pregnancy can put you through a lot of thoughts. It will make you think about the least possible negativity. Well, these are the instincts of the mother to safeguard her child. So
blog featured image

10 November, 2023

5 best ways to avoid premature labour

The average length of a human gestation is 280 days or 40 weeks. The gestation period is usually counted from the first day of woman’s last menstrual period. It’s good and healthier for babies not to be born before they’re due. If the labour starts before 37 weeks of pregnancy, then it is usually called as premature labour. In this case, the baby is not fully grown and is not entirely ready to come into the outside world.In premature labour, the mother is unable to carry her baby for the full 9-month term. There are a number of reasons behind the preterm labour, including traumas, accidents and unpredictable diseases. Although the reasons are not clear, here are the common and best advisable ways to avoid premature labour.Learn what you can do to prevent early labour!  See your health care provider early and regularly during your pregnancy. Prenatal care is designed over the years to minimise the risk and complications of pregnancy. A good health care provider can ensure and plan your pregnancy. Attend all prenatal appointments with your doctor and have all the screening tests to check your health and your baby’s health. Understand the common problems of the pregnancy and check the root causes in case of complications. Understanding the root causes will help you and
blog featured image

25 October, 2021

Pelvic Pain

Pelvic Pain Pelvic pain is pain in the lower part of the abdomen and pelvis. It can stem from multiple causes. Pelvic pain arises from the conditions associated with reproductive, urinary or digestive systems, or from muscles and ligaments in the pelvis. Pelvic pain can be due to irritation of nerves in the pelvis. Chronic pelvic pain is constant or intermittent pelvic pain for six months or more. Pelvic pain may spread to lower back, buttocks or thighs. Pelvic pain can also be situational, such as while using the bathroom or have sex. Causes More than one condition can lead to Pelvic pain. Common causes of acute pelvic pain Ovarian cyst– it is fluid-filled bubble arising from an ovary and causes pelvic pain when it ruptures or becomes twisted Acute pelvic inflammatory disease– a bacterial infection of the reproductive organs, which often follows a chlamydia or gonorrhoea infection and needs immediate treatment with Antibiotics. Ectopic Pregnancy (or other pregnancy-related conditions) Miscarriage or intrauterine fetal death Menstrual cramps (dysmenorrhea) Mittelschmerz (ovulation pain) Appendicitis â€“ a painful swelling of the appendix which usually causes pain on the lower right-hand side of your abdomen Peritonitis– inflammation of the peritoneum; it causes sudden abdominal pain that gradually becomes more severe and requires emergency treatment Urinary tract infection – it will cause pain or a burning sensation while urination Kidney stones Constipation or
Loading booking..